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Greater Celandine vs Celandine Poppy

These two plants, one native to North America and the other introduced and invasive in many regions, superficially look quite similar. With effort, they can be told apart by leaves and flowers. They are easiest to distinguish by their seed pods or the arrangement of leaves along stems.

Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus)

Celandine Poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)

Native to Europe, north Africa, and western Asia, and introduced in North America, where it has become invasive in the northeast, midwest, and northwest.
Native to the east-central U.S.
Petals narrower than long, often leaving space between them.
Photo © Emily Rollinson, Public Domain.
Flowers larger. Petals wider than long, usually overlapping considerably.
Photo © Melissa McMasters, CC BY 4.0.
Seedpods long, narrow, and upright.
Photo © hitefamily, CC BY 4.0.
Seedpods shorter and wider, rounded, dangling, and covered in bristles.
Photo © Michael Ellis, CC BY 4.0.
Leaves attached singly, alternate along stem.
Photo © Ron Burkert, CC BY 4.0.
Leaves attached to stem in opposite pairs.
Photo © andrew_garn, CC BY 4.0.
Leaves have numerous fine cuts. Leaf margin strongly rounded between cuts.
Photo © Akiva, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Leaves have fewer, but often deeper cuts. Between cuts, leaf margin tapers more gradually to a round tip.
Photo © Fluff Berger, CC BY-SA 4.0.