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White Vervain (Verbena urticifolia L.)

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White Vervain
Photo © Randy A Nonenmacher, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Range - Expand

Native or Not Present
Introduced or Not Present

This tentative map is based on our own research. It may have limited data on Canada and/or Mexico, and there is some subjectivity in our assignment of plants as introduced vs. expanded. Read more in this blog post.


Found mostly in mesic to moist conditions, in disturbed, partly-shaded areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Found in floodplains, forest openings and edges. Often more common around paths, where it benefits from higher light conditions. Prefers fertile, loamy soil but tolerates both some clay and gravel.

Except for where humans maintain areas by mowing or trimming, its habitat is usually short-lived, as it prefers sites with more light yet high moisture and rich soils, where other vegetation quickly grows up.

Life Cycle

White vervain is a short-lived perennial, sometimes growing as a biennial or even annual.

Flowering begins mid summer; the plant grows long flower spikes, with only a few flowers opening at a given point in time. Plants can reach 6" in height, but leaves are usually concentrated in the lower portions of the plant.

After plant flowers and sets seed, it often becomes covered with mildew.

Verbena urticifolia (White Vervain) | Illinois Wildflowers (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia (White Vervain) | USDA PLANTS Database (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia | Go Botany (About This Site)

White Vervain | iNaturalist (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia | CABI Invasive Species Compendium (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia | Biota of North America Project (BONAP) (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia | NatureServe Explorer (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia | Missouri Plants (About This Site)

White Vervain | Maryland Biodiversity Project (About This Site)

Verbena urticifolia (White Vervain) | Minnesota Wildflowers (About This Site)

Photo gallery

Photo © Ryan Hodnett, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Photo © Randy A Nonenmacher, CC BY-SA 4.0.